To assess joy, the new Personal Happiness Scale (SHS) was applied

To assess joy, the new Personal Happiness Scale (SHS) was applied


Usually the one-dimensional survey consisted of four facts ranked on an effective 7-part Likert size (range: 1–7; level reliability: Cronbach’s leader = .82).

New Fulfillment with Lives Level (SWLS) was utilized to measure around the globe lifestyle pleasure . The 5 pieces of this one-dimensional questionnaire had been rated to the an excellent 7-point Likert size (1 = highly disagree; eight = firmly agree; measure reliability: Cronbach’s alpha = .92) .

To measure resilience, one-dimensional Italian language Strength Size eleven (RS-11) was used [56,57]. Players rated eleven affairs to the a great eight-section Likert size (1 = disagree; eight = agree; scale precision: Cronbach’s alpha = .91).

Subjective experienced or expected assistance in the social network try measured for the you to-dimensional her German Survey Societal Help (F-SozU K-14) including fourteen factors rated on a great 5-section Likert size (1 = untrue; 5 = true; size precision: Cronbach’s leader = .94).

Narcissism was measured into thirteen force-selection format pieces of brand new Narcissistic Identification List 13 (NPI-13; scale reliability: Cronbach’s leader = .82) .

The brand new personality traits of one’s “Large Four” was indeed assessed towards the Large Five Index ten (BFI-10) . The new ten facts was ranked on a great 5-part Likert scale (step one = differ strongly; 5 = agree strongly). Respectively, several items belonged to one of your four bills extraversion (measure precision: Cronbach’s alpha = .89), agreeableness (Cronbach’s alpha = .74), conscientiousness (Cronbach’s alpha = .82), neuroticism (Cronbach’s leader = .86), and visibility (Cronbach’s alpha = .79).

To measure the latest participants’ self-admiration, the new Italian language variety of the new Single-Product Worry about-Respect Level (SISE) was utilized . Users had been questioned to help you speed to the good 5-section Likert level how much the latest report “We have higher mind-value.” applied to by themselves (step one = cannot be entirely true out of me; 5 = best shown from me).

The brand new Despair Nervousness Stress Scales 21 (DASS-21) was in fact put on measure anxiety, anxiety and stress episodes [62,63]. The complete questionnaire contained three legitimate seven-goods bills, that have been rated towards cuatro-point Likert bills (0 = didn’t affect me personally at all; step three = used on me personally greatly or normally; size precision: depression: Cronbach’s alpha = .83, anxiety: Cronbach’s leader = .78, stress: Cronbach’s alpha = .87) [64,65].

Also, people was basically asked about the social network explore. Earliest, Internet sites play with are measured (“How often are you willing to go online total?”). Within the next step, the fresh SNSs use is actually reviewed (“How often can you have fun with social networking sites?”). The clear answer for both questions got for the a great eight-section Likert scale (0 = never; 1 = below once per month; dos = from time to time thirty days; 3 = regular; cuatro = from time to time per week; 5 = once a day; 6 = more than once 24 hours). Next, people was in fact expected whether they registered as a member of your SNSs Facebook, Fb, Instagram, Tumblr, Google+ or other system (0 = no; step one = yes).

Mathematical analyses

The brand new Analytical Bundle with the Personal Sciences (SPSS) type 21 was used for all mathematical analyses [66,67]. First, the latest means of the fresh examined character traits and you may psychological state variables have been compared anywhere between Myspace pages and you will Twitter non-users by calculating multivariate investigation out of difference (MANOVA). Pursuing the Steven’s recommendation not to ever have fun with over 10 dependent variables in one single MANOVA, i presented two MANOVAs. The original study provided care about-admiration, narcissism additionally the “Larger Five” characteristics. Given that Box’s attempt was non-high, we put Pillai’s shade since a good multivariate attempt. The second studies integrated the psychological state details lifetime pleasure, resilience, social service, contentment, anxiety, anxiety, and you will be concerned. Right here, Box’s decide to try are extreme, therefore, new Hotelling’s shade statistics were used. not, all four multivariate examination shown similar performance.