5.6.2 Postaxial cervical spinal vertebrae
PEFO 34561 doesn’t maintain people post-axial prior cervical spinal vertebrae, which means this description mostly is founded on PEFO 33861, PEFO 34269, and PEFO 34833 (Shape 8e). The newest centra was anteroposteriorly short; this new anteroposterior amount of brand new centrum are a few-thirds the level. Brand new diapophysis is found into the dorsolateral surface of centrum while the fresh parapophysis can be found with the ventrolateral skin. Among you can find meagerly to really-install non-pneumatic fossae. Ventrally, all the centra provides really-install keels. New neural arch and you will lower back is actually dorsoventrally taller compared to centrum; evaluation regarding PEFO 33861 and you will PEFO 34833 suggests that the fresh new neural back displays positive allometry according to this new centrum. The latest neural spine are posteriorly placed and slightly overhangs this new centrum. It is sideways compressed and you may anteroposteriorly narrow, that have an extremely moderate extension in the dorsal idea. The latest zygapophyses try oriented fifty°–55° away from lateral. The new postzygapophysis and has now a well-establish epipophysis as a consequence of no less than new 4th cervical vertebra (considering PEFO 34833). The presence of post-axial epipophyses is important since this reputation possess a finite distribution from inside the archosaurs, and are usually simply present in R. callenderi, saurischian dinosaurs, B. kupferzellensis, V. campi (age.grams., PEFO 33978), X. sapingensis (IVPP V6026), Age. okeeffeae (AMNH FR 30587), and you will Hesperosuchus agilis (AMNH FR 6758; Langer & Benton, 2006 ; Nesbitt, 2011 ).
The latest morphology of your own middle so you can rear cervical vertebrae is similar into the alot more anterior cervical vertebrae compared to the trunk vertebrae when you look at the that they have weak ventral keels and use up all your line of spine laminae; not, the curves connect promo kodlarД± newest centrum is much more equant with its proportions (Profile 8f). Furthermore, the brand new diapophysis is available towards the neural arch, brand new zygapophyses was proportionally larger than a lot more anterior spinal vertebrae, the new postzygapophyses use up all your epipophyses, and the transverse extension of the dorsal margin of your own neural back is the best created. Hence, the newest rear cervical vertebrae are transformation for the morphology involving the prior cervical and also the middle-trunk area backbone.
5.6.3 Trunk backbone
Continuing the fresh trend found in the cervical collection, the initial a couple of trunk area spinal vertebrae (determined by this new relevant rib method of) are also transitional within the morphology (Shape 8g) within cervical vertebrae as well as the trunk backbone closer to the latest sacrum. New centra is actually anteroposteriorly more than dorsoventrally significant, in addition to centrum face are amphicoelous. The rear centra lack ventral ridges toward midline (= ventral keels). The brand new prezygapophysis are situated 30° regarding lateral, while the brand new postzygapophysis try founded only 20° of lateral. The fresh neural back is more offered anteroposteriorly compared to this new cervical vertebrae; this extension comes from better-set up dorsoventral laminae to the anterior and you can rear edges of your own neural lower back. The brand new dorsal portion of the sensory back was offered laterally into a thorough “back table” having a condo dorsal skin, similar to that of aetosaurs (age.g.,D. spurensis, MNA V9300). In dorsal check, these spine dining tables are cardio-molded on the top of your center pointing posteriorly. Brand new diapophysis and you will parapophysis are linked by the a well-build paradiapophyseal lamina; that it lamina is found in almost every other archosaurs (e.g., Nesbitt, 2005b ), however it is such as large throughout these backbone out-of Roentgen. callenderi. The newest parapophysis is found towards the sensory arc, but it is not dorsal with the dorsalmost expansion of one’s centrum. The initial two trunk area vertebrae keeps meagerly arranged centroprezygapophyseal, centropostzygapophyseal, spinoprezygapophyseal, spinopostzygapophyseal, prezygodiapophyseal, postzygodiapophyseal, and you can intrapostzygapophyseal laminae identifying him or her in the cervical vertebrae (Wilson, 1999 ).
step 1.25pared on the first couple of trunk backbone, the newest parapophysis is significantly closer to this new diapophysis; the fresh parapophysis merely anteromedial to your diapophysis and therefore are linked of the a little paradiapophyseal lamina. Brand new centrozygapophyseal and spinozygapophyseal laminae commonly because pronounced throughout the alot more rear trunk backbone, even though the intrapostzygapophyseal lamina remains distinctive line of, and you may a beneficial intrina is present. This new neural spines is cardio-shaped like the transitional backbone, however they are a little way more anteroposteriorly elongate.